( Chemical Guide about Concrete Form oil )
|Appearance||Solubility||How to use||Applications|
|tanned oily liquid||Oil soluble||use direct||cement and concrete manufacture, civil engineering and construction , cellular concrete, foamed concrete|
|oil soluble||dilute with oil||cement and concrete manufacture, Vi-cone、 long pitch corrugated asbestos slate|
|water soluble||dilute with water||large size products, high flow concrete products,centrifugal
segment, wood-wool cement boards、sizings
|milky white liquid or paste||water soluble||use direct||cement and concrete manufacture, civil engineering and construction|
|water soluble||dilute with water||cement and concrete manufacture, centrifugal products|
|oil soluble||dilute with kerosine||cement and concrete manufacture, Vi-cone|
|tanned solution||oil soluble||rezineous (use direct)||centrifugal products, cement and concrete manufacture|
|water soluble||wax type（dilute with water)||cement and concrete manufacture, civil engineering and construction|
|Points of Troubles and Problems||Problems in the process of manufacturing|
|1.Selecting , applying and stocking methods of form oils||They may not be applied in suitable conditions to get good concrete products. For example , too thin or too thick . Oder is not mild. The fluid may sometimes become gel and separate|
|2. The process of releasing forms||Forms cannnot be parted smoothly. The form oils may not have sufficient lubricity and releasing power.|
|3.The forms just after separated from hardened concrete products||Concrete build ups are observed. In case of too much build ups ,
form cleanworks are troublesome and it may take time too much to use the
forms more times.
The characteristics properties of build ups are observed in two cases as follows ; one is soft and brittle , easy to remove with weak brushing power and the other is hard and hard to be removed with weak brushing power . In both cases ,build ups should be cleaned up. If no cleaning works are done, the build ups will change much harder not to be able to be cleaned up with ease and will grow much thicker. They will cause oil stain on concrete products.
|4.The concrete product surfaces after separated from forms||Oil stains are observed on the concrete surface
Discoloration will occur to a little dark brownish
Much bugholes are observed.
|Problems||Sources of troubles||Causes||Follow-up actions|
|Forms may sometimes bond to concrete products. Defects may be observed . Form releasing processes are not kept running smoothly.|
|Form oils||Not applied uniformly.There are unpainted parts in forms.||Make sure form oils are applied uniformly.|
|Applied quantity of form oils are too little and not adequate to release well.||Apply adequate amount of form oils.|
|Releasing power may be too weak.||Test more stronger form oils|
|Curing||Inadequate（Much amount of soft concrete buildups are observed on forms）||Curing time→ Adjust |
Curing temperature→ Adjust
|Excessive curing. Form separating works may not be done smoothly.||Adjust curing conditions|
|The film layers of applied form oils will be destroyed.||Vibratings in molding conditions may be too strong.||Adjust molding conditions|
|The forms which form oils are applied may be set for long time before fresh concretes will be poured into mold.||Recoat form oils or|
Change form oils which can release after long intervals.
|The forms are too hot to retain adequate amount of form oils.||Cool so far as time permits|
|Problems||Sources of troubles||Causes||Follow-up actions|
|Much amount of build ups is observed|
|Hardened build ups||Cleanings are inadequate||Clean up forms|
|As the result of overcuring, form oils are absorbed into concrete products . Then luburisity will be lost.||Adjust curing time|
|Inadequate form oils applied||Apply adequate amount of form oil.|
|Form oils are adsorbed into concretes . Then form oil films on the forms are destroyed.||A little more stronger one should be tested.|
|Soft build ups which are not in hardened state or will harden from now||Inadequate cleaning up , then build up will deposite.||Clean up forms surely|
|Shortage in strength of concrete surface||Cure adequately|
|Applied too much form oils||Spraying as necessarily thin as possible. Excessively applied form oils should be wiped off.|
|The strength of form oil is too much stronger than necessary case.||Adjust or test other oils which is weaker than used now.|
|Bugholes on cocrete products|
|There are a lot of little bugholes which concrete embraced form oil into the surface.||Acid value of form oil is too high .
The viscosity of oil is too much.
|Choose other form oil which has lower acid value or lower viscosity than used now.|
|Excessive amount of form oils are applied.||Adequite amount of form oil should be sprayed.|
|Small voids are observed , which may be from air bubbles.||When cement paste which covers bugholes on concrete product is taken away to the formwork, the form releasing power of form oil is too weak.||If form oil is diluted with water, down the dilution ratio with
water. More thicher diluted form oil shows better form releasing
Change oil more strong type form oil.
Spray a little more thicker.
|When cement paste which covers bugholes on concrete product is staying on concrete surface, the form releasing power of form oil is OK, but the power of antifoaming is not adequate||Change form oils which has more strong power of
Add a little amount of adequate antifoam agent.
|Curing steps are too speady started.||Precure so far as time permits.|
|Relatively big voids are observed , which may be from air bubbles or voids from another causes.||The conditions of vibration-molding concrete are inadequate.||Adjust molding conditions|
|The workability of fresh concrete is't adquate . Slump may be too little.||Adjust flowability. It should be reexamined to mix ratio of fresh concrete materials.|
|Stain on concrete products|
|When fresh concretes are poured into forms and vibrated , the excessively applied form oils will arise oil stains and discolorations from bottoms to a little upper parts like a little volcanoes.||Excessive amount of form oils are applied.||Spray uniformly and adequate amount to release forms from concrete.|
|The finished surface of hardent concrete product is a little dark-brown.||The parting power of foam oil is too strong.||Test more weak form oil|
|Stains are observed when concrete work processes are done outdoors.||The applied form oils will react with oxygen under ultraviolet ray and their form releasing characteristics will be changed.||Use form oil which is durable to ultravoiret ray.|
|Materials||Ingredients||Effects ,rollings||Sticking power to forms|
solvent for oil soluble type form oils
Adjust viscosity of oils.
Releasing power is weak.
Adjust viscosity of oils.
|machine oil||lubricant. Releasing power is weak.||sticky|
|turbine oil||lubricant.Releasing power is weak.||sticky|
|moter oil||lubricant. Releasing power is middle.||sticky (strong)|
|cylinder oils||lubricant. Releasing power is strong.||more sticky|
|active additives||higher fatty acids||releasing, antifoam, lubricant, rust-proofing||strong|
|resin acids||releasing , antifoam, lubricant, rust-proof||strong|
|waxes||releasing, carrier of parting materials||strong(middle)|
|fatty acid derivatives||lubricant, releasing||sticky(middle)|
|synthetic resins||releasing effect||sticky to forms(strong)|
|supplementary additives||fat, fatty acid esters||oiliness improver（specially in winter）||weak|
|surface active agents||antifoam, emulsifier, wetting agent||weak|
|petroleum sulphonate||emulsifier, rust-proofing||weak|
|polymers(polybutene etc)||oiliness improver||sticky(weak)|
|carrier (in case of
water soluble type form oils)
|water||diluent, lubricant||weak or none|
|Category of form oils||Form oil behaviour between forms and concretes ( Reaction mechanisms )||Merits, advantage||Demerits|
|Reactive (chemically active) type||Chemically active ingredients in applied form releasing agents on
forms will react with cement alkari to form metallic soap. This reaction
proceeds in two steps.First, higher fatty acid in form oils will react
with NaOH and KOH and form water soluble soaps. This substance will
antifoam air bubbles.
Secondly, this water-soluble sodium- or pottasium salts of fatty acids will eact calsium ion immediately to form metallic soaps which are insoluble in water. These materials will act as burriers not to bond forms to concrete products.
( Commercially it is said that higher fatty acids in form oils can react directly with calsium ion to form calsium salts of higher fatty acids. In normal conditions this reaction may not occur. That isn't right.)
|The parting power can be adjusted by adjusting the amount of higher fatty acids. Antifoaming efficiency is excellent in general.||When form oil is oversprayed, oil stain is observed frequently and a corner or bottom part of concrete product doesn't harden and sometimes heavy build up will appear.|
|Barrier(non-reactive) type||The reactivity of form oils with cement alkari is poor. The polar substances in form oils will be adsorbed or sticked to forms , which will adsorb cement particles and other fine materials. These intermediates will act as barriers which will prevent forms from bonding to concrete products .||After separating forms,the build up is observed a little in general. Even if these oils are applied too much excessively , oil stains will not be observed so much as when chemical type oils are applied.||Bugholes are much more observed than in case of chemical type.|
|Lubricant type||Lubricant form oils will be weakly adsorbed phisically to cement particles and to forms. They will act as lublicants between moldpress surfaces and fresh concretes . After concrete products are cured , they should not be sticked or bonded to each other.||The lublicity can be adjusted.||The performance of oil soluble type form oil might surpass in water soluble(or emusion type) form oil.|
|(Mixed type)||(Mixtures of chemical reactive type and physical type might be often observed. They might belong to chemically active type.)||(Adjustable)||(Rather a little more bugholes are observed than in case of chemical type.)|
|Specific cause of problem||Various factors||Seperating||Build-up||Bugholes||Color of concrete product|
|Form release agent itself||Choice, viscosity（high, low), chemical active ingredients（rich, poor ), chemical reactive type or physical type, lublicant oil（high vis. , low vis.）, applying method, applied amount （excessively sprayed , inadequitely sprayed ）, set place of painted form , storage of oil, re-using of used form oil||●●●～○||●●●～○||●●●～○||●●●～○|
|material of forms||ceramics, steel
aluminium, galvanized steel
concrete panel, plywood
synthetic resin overlayed formwork（epoxy-, polyurethan-, polyester）
|kinds of cement||ordinary portland cement, high-early-strength portland cement, blast furnace cement||●●～○||●●～○||○||●～○|
|cement content in mix proportion||４００～５００ｋｇ/m3, ２７０～３５０ｋ/m3||●●～○||●●～○||●～○||●～○|
|concrete admixture||When fresh concrete is exchanged from plain concrete to
when substituting admixture
when admixture(AE water reducing agent) is substituted with high fluid plasticizer
espicially in case of melamine derivatives, naphthalic derivatives and polycarboxylic derivatives
|admixuture materials(= fine powders)||When amount of fine particle (for example calcium carbonate)is increased.||●●●～○||●●●～○||●●●～○||●●●～○|
|setted forms interval between painting oil and pouring concrete||short
for 1 ～4 hours
a day ～few day
|the place where the forms are set.||indoor working process, outdoor working process especially in case of the place which is exposed to ultraviolet rays from the sun.||●●～○||●●●～○||●●～○||●●●～○|
|sistem for manufacturing concrete products||Automatic line system, manufacturing system with molding forms which are set in the predetermined place or moved step by step to the working station||●●～○||●●～○||●●～○||●●～○|
|Product shape, type , size||ordinary type products（large size, middle size, small size)
the forms which are specially patterend indented or particular types (irregular types)
|How to design concrete molds||Concrete pouring direction:The mold is differently designed vertically or horizontally.||●～○||●～○||●～○||●～○|
|Fresh concrete||Concrete mixing ratio
Time lag of pouring fresh concrete
|How to mold||Form vibrator（table vibrator, side vibrator, internal vibrator,
back and forth vibrator）
（low frequency vibrating , high frequency vibrating , vibrating molding time）（no vibrating～weakly vibrating molding）
centrifugal rotation molding
press molding､ vibrating and press molding
|Curing||Time between molding and curing
How to cure(Steam, gas, autoclave, narural )
|Form release, form seperating||Form is opened or almost closed (a little opened )
The direction of form seperating
|Curing after form seperating forms||How to stock
Weather・temperature・especially very cold winter
|Direction of separating forms from concrete||vacuum separating upwards or sidewards||●●～○||●●～○||●～○||●～○|
|Environmental demand||Environmental pollution||●～○||●～○||●～○||●～○|
|Seanonal change||viscosity change of form oil, in winter season using oil type forming oil instead of emulsion type||●●～○||●●～○||●～○||●～○|
|When sepparating form when the intensity of product surface is low.||(tunnel, sewer)||●●●～○||●●●～○||●～○||●～○|
|Materials situation||Environmental regulation, demand of purity of refining material oils､ carcinogenic or not||●●～○||●●～○||●～○||●～○|
|Is there Japanese industrial standard regarding to form release agents?||No.there isn't in Japan. The standard is maker's self-standard.|
|2.How can we test performance of form release agents in manufacturing concrete products ?||Lubricant test methods are only applied to determine physical or
chemical characteristics of form oils. (density, kinetic
viscosity,color, flash point etc.)
If needed, concrete form oil tests are examined in laboratory scale, but these tests are only basic and not final and perfect tests.
|3.What kinds of laws are there to deal and use form oils.?||Fire Defence Law, Clean Water Law, Sewage water Law, Marine Pollution Prevention Law, Waste disposal and Public Cleaning Law, Labeling Duty On Industrial Safety and Health Law, MSDS, Law Concerning Examination and Regulation of Manufacture and Handling of Chemical Substances|
|4.What are the merit of using oil soluble type form oils?||These types can be used in all seasons. The build up is much less than in case of applying emulsion type.|
|5.Are emulsion types applicable to form release agents satisfactory?||Concrete admixtures were recently made an excellent progress .Enlargement usage of them, form oil performance was promoted and its good-looking concrete product surfaces are frequently better than in oil type . Therefore the extents to use emusion type form oils are growing up and now they are recognized as members of goods necessary to manufacture concrete products .|
|6.What is the merit of using emulsion type form oils?||Comparing emusion type form oil with oil type one, the surface of concrete product is more white and there are not so many bugholes .The surface is more smooth. Emulsion type form oil has now come to work effectively with its adeguate separating power. When it is sprayed, the mist of form oil is heavier than in case of oil type, so it doesn't spread so wide as in case of oil type. Working condition will be improved.|
|7.How to use more efficiently emulsion type form oils.?||When emulsion type form oil is used, the form oil emulsion should be stirred while spraying process is on being. Used form oil should not be back to new form oil. If it is mixed, it's balance will change and the components pretend to separate . In winter in order not to be froze, emulsion should be kept warm if necessary.Overspraying mold oil, overpainted oil will cause oil stain and retard concrete hardening reaction, so over amount of oil should be wiped off.|
|8.What is the demerit of using emulsion type form oil?||In water emulsion type form oil should be keeped warm. On too severe low temperature conditions, water is frozen and sprayed is frozen. At that it cann7T used. When working time is over, form oil in the pipeline should be outto be empty.|
|9.How to apply forming oil||Apply thinly (adequately). Swipe off oversprayed oil. Try different spraying methods, and choose the best way which is profittable to the factory.|
|10.The form oil is too viscous to apply.||Test less viscous form oil. Use after form oil is warmed. Make its viscosity down with low viscosity oil(ex. kerosine) 5 to 10 % of all.|
|11.When form oil is applied and a long time (a day or more ) will pass by, the separating effect will not be adequate.||Use form oil that is able to release under such conditions. When
sprayed form oil drops down with elapse of the time, there are some
forms in commercial which are able to release forms .In that case it
sometimes contains viscosity improvers.
Respraying before pouring concrete.
|12.Is the film layer on the form oil durable to excessively severe vibration?||It can not be durable. The thin layer of form oil is destroyed. The strength of form oil performance has a limit.|
|13.（Civil engineering)The form oil is sprayed to unwanted part(ex.reiforcing steel). Is the painted part is safe or hamful to the next step of concrete-working?||Form oils should not be painted or sprayed to unwanted places.If painted, the oil should be removed.|
|14.（Civil engineering)The form oil is sprayed to plywood form with thicker concentration than usual dilution ratio. Is it harmless or detrimental to the later working?||The overlayed or over amount of form oil will frequently contain the material which would retard concrete hardening reaction. So, form oils in that case should be removed and then sprayed once more with standard form oil whichis diluted in standard ratio.|
|15.（Civil engineering)The pollystyrene form is sprayed with emulsion type form oil. At that time the formwork is rained so much.||In fear of washout, respray or repaint form oils.|
|16.The oversprayed form oil is recovered. Is this recycled form oil equal to fresh form oil?？||The composition of recycle oil is not equal to fresh oil. A part of ingredient is adsorbed or reacts with cement alkali, and then form the other material or complex. The concentration of components is reduced. The fine powders in concrete blending comes to be mixed n into oil-alkari complex part.|
|1.Effects of vibrating molding on releasing forms.||（shortage in bibration →bugholes, oil stain）
（excess→hard to seperate forms from concrete 、Forms are built up with hardened concrete or bonded to concrete product in extremely severe condition.）
|2.In case of being short in surface strength because of inadequate curing, what does it effect on releasiong forms?||Concrete buildｓ up to forms（soft build up ,spot build
Concrete product finished surfaces (dappling of oil stain, slightly dark coloured, deep oil stain.
|3.What effect does concrete-overcuring cause on releasing forms?||The form oil will be absorbed into concrete product surfaces,and then lose its adequate lubricity to release forms. Form separation will not be able to be done with ease. Just before the step,the release is good and product surface is white.Farther more oil stain is not observed or not to be mentioned oil stain.|
|1.Hard to release forms||The forms is sticking to concrete product. It cannot be separated easily with lubricity.→（Spray form oil a little thicker.)(Warm forms before separating.)（Adjusting curing）（Change form oil with other more lubricant one.）|
|2.When separating, the deep pitch part of product is damaged.||・The taper of formwork is too tight(or small)→Adjust
formwork(ex.grind down ). Separating formworks to horizontal
・Hard to separate→Test other oil with more lubricity. In exterme case use grease or solvent type form oil should betested.
|3.Hardened build up is observed on forms.||・Form oil may cause like that problem.（Shortage in amount of
sprayed oil.→Adjust amount of form oil.
Shortage in power of releasing forms→Test stronger type form oil.
In shortage in viscosity of form oil.→Inclease viscosity of form oil.
Interval time between painting form oil and pouring concrete is long.→Test more VI improved form oil.)
・The vibrating conditions may cause .(The conditions is too stronger.→Adjust.）
|4.Soft(=Not hardened )build up is observed on formworks.||・Form oil may cause.→（Overspray form oil.→Super adequate amount
of form oil.） （Power of releasing formworks is excessive.)→Test weaker
oil） （Excessive viscosity of form oil →Test improved type which has
・Curing may cause .→ （Strength of concrete product surface is not sufficient to be separated.）（Shortage in curing in cold season of climate.)→(Adjust blending ratio with high-early-strength portland cement）
・Rapid curing（rapid rising of formwork temperature）may cause to make product surface uneven .The thin layer of entrained air covered with cement paste may migrate rapidly up to formwork and be destroyed.→Adjust of inductive curing and curing conditions.
|5.In automatic line , too much build up is observed.||（Too much form oil is sprayed.→Adjust）（Reactivity of form oil is too much.→Test oil with lower asid value.）（Additives such as antifoam might be too much.→Test more simple type form oil.）（Test physical type form oil.）|
|6.Why soft build up is formed?||when releasing agent may be a cause of concrete build up：The form oil on the form work reacts or adheres with fresh concrete. Then mixture causes retarding of cocrete hardening reaction and forms concrete build up.|
|7.Formwork rusts.||・Overlayed black iron oxide film is lost→（Renewal of
formwork.）（Test more antirust oil.）（Inprove curing environment not to be
rusted by much of water drops.）|
（・When emulsion type is now used, formworks tends to rust.→Change form oil more antirust form oil.Sometimes oil type form oil is used, then no rust might be observed.）
|1.What is the powder observed on concrete products and formworks?||That is a mixture consisting of next materials; ①metallic soap or co-agglutinate which form oil and fresh concrete reacts or adheres to each other ②fine particles 、③fine sand 、④mud,⑤cement hydrate、⑥a part of form oil(oil and additives).|
|2.Why is cement paste which covers pinholes sticked to formwork?||・Overspraying of form oil may cause.→Adjust amount of form oil to
Form releasing poweris excessive→①Adjust or change it with a little weaker form oil）
・Shortage in poor releasing power may cause→Strengthen form releasing power. In case of emulsion type form oil, down the water-dilution ratio.②In case of oil soluble type form oil →Test stronger type or paint more thickerly, or use more viscous one.
・③In case of shortage in strength of product surface may cause , adjust curing conditions or blending and adjust blending ratio with high-early-strength portland cement.
|3.Much bugholes are observed.||・Form oil may cause.（①In case of shortage in antifoam →Test other
oil with more antifoam performance . ②Add antiform agent 1～2％ to foam
agent used now.）
・Fresh concrete when admixture is changed may cause. Especially this case is most frequently occured. The admixture is changed, but form release agent is not changed or improved in order to fit newly adopted concrete admixture. In that case usually used form agent may not serve its purpose to make concrete product surface even. Test form oils which serves to be the concrete product which has beautifully finished surfaces.
・In case of casting process→Adjust casting conditions.
|4.The surface of concrete product is a little dark-colored.||・Compatibity of concrete admixture may be changed. In some case ,
its color is improved to desired one.
・Form agent may cause →①Oil is too strong.→Test adjusted type.②Overspraying→Adequately spray
・Curing may cause →Adjust curing conditions.
・Impurities in aggeregates may cause.→Form agent could not improve its states
|5.Oil stain is observed.||・Form oil may cause.①Over spraying→Wipe off or remove with proper
solvent.②Form oil is too strong.→Adjust form oil or test weaker
・③Form release agent could react with oxigen in air under UV radiation. By outdoor casting concrete , formwork is sunshined. Then form oil will be changed to the form oil which would be supposed to be partially oxidized or decomposed or condensated or polymerized with more acidic substances by UV. This phenomena could be observed only 20minutes after form oils being applied even on a cloud day. This oil layer on the forms will frequently form much build up on forms. In the case of outdoor works more UV-durable type form releasing agents should be applied.
|6.There are >10mm bugholes on concrete product. May these be finished to even by means of changing form oil?||In some cases, emulsion type may control the formation of like that bugholes. The holes which the entrained air bubbles will gather and form will be covered with mortar paste. but it is frequently crazed or drop down. This thin coating is often fragile. Adjusting and improving concrete casting conditions should be tested. In some cases concrete blending ratio should be restructered.|
|7.What is oilbugholes?||Form oil is sprayed on formwork surface. Oversprayed oil will drop down to the formwork bottom place. When bibrating casting is started, that oil rised upwards after entrained air bubbles. There oil may form fine cubic particles.After concrete products hardens, the oil will be absorbed into concrete and leave behind very fine cubic holes(～5mm). Like this fine holes may sometimes calls oilbugholes.|
|8.How to cotrol the formation of oilbugholes?||（Wipe off the oil which is oversprayed and dropped down. ）（Test form oils.|
|9.Oil stain streak is observed vertically.||It is observed along the place where vibrators are set or along reinforcing steel.（Form oil cannot clear this problem only itself.)|
|1.May efflorescence be able to be controlled ?||It is observed in winter season. After it rains, it can be frequently observed. May form oil be able to stop efflorescence from concrete products? It is impossible to control it only by form release agents. （Some kinds of form oil may a little retard efforescence, but cannot control it. If concrete is water proof, its phenomenon will be controlled. If form oil is enriched with such waterproogfing agent, concrete surface will not be waterproof. Because, formwork and fresh concrete is touching each other . Concrete surface is wet and not so porous to absorb only waterproofing agent.|
|2.Stains or colour changes in curing concrete products.||Shortage in curing, rained just after separating、temperature falling down、 curing place may cause . Form agent may not be able to solve this problem.|
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